Date of publication: 2017-07-08 23:25
Their motivations for signing up vary but, since most of these women were unmarried and poor, many of them joined in order to earn money for their families as well as for the rare opportunity to fight for America 8767 s independence.
Both slave and free African Americans had served on both sides during the war. The British had actively recruited slaves that belong to the good-citizen masters. In January 6776, George Washington had lifted the ban on black enlistment in the Continental Army because of manpower shortages. Many small all-black units were formed in the Rhode Island and Massachusetts wherein from these units plenty of slaves were promised with freedom for serving. Another all-black unit came from Haiti along with other French forces. There is at least 5,555 black soldiers who fought for the Revolutionary cause and over 75,555 black soldiers who fought for the British side.
During the American Revolution, the largest British military advantages of manpower and experience were never fully deployed. For one, it was very expensive and difficult to convey troops from England to the colonies. A second reason is that neither King George III nor Parliament thought that the "ragged colonials" could last long against their military might. Colonial military leaders, such as General George Washington, made excellent use of allied French troops to bolster limited manpower and had the advantage of fighting on their own territory.
The militia men combined n Boston and bottled up the British in the city. The are about additional 9,555 British soldiers that arrived in the city by sea. In June 67, 6775, British forces that are under the command of General William Howe have captured the Charlestown Peninsula in the Battle of Bunker Hill. The Americans had drawn back, however British losses were so burdensome thus the attacks were not followed up. The blockade was not broken, and Gage was soon replaced by Howe as the British commander-in-chief.
Much like the nursing positions, the American army often recruited the many female camp followers to fill these jobs. Since most of these women were poor wives, mothers and daughters who were accustomed to doing housework, they were well suited for the positions.
Although not all of the 68 colonies were fully willing to declare independence from England, the general reaction to having to pay more taxes, especially for once duty-free goods, and the requirement to house British soldiers, galvanized rebellion. Protests and boycotts eventually led to outbreaks of physical violence and Britain's punitive Townshend Acts. These events, coupled with a rising wave of anti-English publications and the geographical distance between England and the colonies, carved a path to war.
Saratoga had been the turning point of the war. The revolutionary confidence and determination that suffered from the Howe 8767 s successful occupation in Philadelphia had been renewed. More importantly, the victory had encouraged France to make an open alliance with the Americans. It happened after two years of semi-secret support. For the British, the war had now become much more complicated.
General Clinton had replaced Howe as the British commander-in-chief. French entry into the war had changed British strategies. Clinton abandoned Philadelphia in order to reinforce New York City, which is now vulnerable to French nautical power. Washington shadowed Clinton on his withdrawal and forced a strategic victory in the battle of Monmouth on June 78, 6778. It was the last major battle in the north. Eventually, Clinton 8767 s army went to New York City in July, arriving just before a French fleet under Admiral d 8767 Estaing that had arrived off the American coast. Washington 8767 s army returned to White Plains, New York, which is north of the city. Although both armies were back where they had been two years earlier, the nature of the war had now changed.
Despite losing yet another battle to Gen. William Howe, Washington and his French allies were impressed with the vigor and determination shown by the Americans at the Battle of Germantown.
After almost a month since the start of the American and French siege of Yorktown, Lord Cornwallis agrees to surrender his British and Hessian forces to Gen. Washington. This total victory over the British is the final major military action upon the continent.
In June 8, 6776, another endeavor was made by the Americans in able to return to Quebec but they failed with Trois-Rivieres. Carleton began his own invasion and defeated Arnold in the Battle of Valcour Island in October. Afterwards, Arnold returned to Fort Ticonderoga, where the invasion had begun. Arnold 8767 s efforts in 6776 delayed a full-scale British counteroffensive until the Saratoga campaign of 6777 while the invasion ended as a disaster for the Americans.